Learn How to Sing Software

In the world of online singing lessons there are two basic options. The first is a package. This may include multiple lessons that are completed in a sequence. There may even be additional support in the form of forums. There are also do it yourself packages available. Each of these has their own merit. One thing is central to both sorts though. They both have some sort of software that you can use to better hone your singing. There is also a wide range of costs for the software that is available. There are some definite components that you should look for in the product that you choose. There are some definite methods you should use when shopping for the product as well.


The single most important component is some sort of application that can track the pitch and note of your voice. This is essential. It can make the difference between practicing a sound that is simply incorrect and learning to hit the note that you want immediately. In addition to a visual display tracking your voice there should be audio output of the note and pitch that you select. This will help you to accurately train your ear as well. This is also essential in learning to hit the note with accuracy.

The other major component that should be included is tutorials. In many cases the tutorials that are required will depend on the individual that is learning. Breathing and singing are the two major classifications. A good foundation of each can make for a very good when learning to sing. If you already have some training then you may want to seek out more specialized tutorials. In some cases the program may offer the option of downloading additional tutorials to supplement what is included. There are also a number of video tutorials available for free. These may be used to fill in the gaps of your understanding if you are aware of what you need to learn.


There are some considerations with nearly any adequate search for anything. Take a look at multiple sources. There is a good chance that some site will have a lower price on a particular software package. That can equal money saved. In addition there are often sales on a program sometimes. These can also equal money saved.

If you have any questions or doubts then you may want to seek out reviews. Reviews are often numerous online. They provide an opportunity to read about the experiences that others have had with a product. They can provide some real insight regarding the experience that you may have. It is important to keep in mind that reviews should be read with a grain of salt. Each one may come from a different individual. They may also be less than genuine or objective.

Lastly, consider seeking out a trial copy of the software you may want. This can offer the chance to try it before you buy it, which can be invaluable.

The Beatles Best Four Psychedelic Albums

These are the four Beatles albums you need if you are into psychedelic music. I will not put them in order (other than alphabetical) because you really need all four of them and I don’t want you thinking you can get away with leaving any of them off your list.

Magical Mystery Tour (1967)

This is probably The Beatles most purposefully trippy album. Almost every song on the album is bursting with mind melting madness of some type or another whether it be experimental production, unusual song arrangements, and/or unusual songwriting. “I Am The Walrus” & “Strawberry Fields Forever” are arguably John Lennon at his most “mad.” These are the songs where he went full out with the “kitchen sink” production, the bizarre lyrics, the unexpected song arrangements. It’s all there. “Flying,” “Blue Jay Way,” and the title track “Magical Mystery Tour,” these are songs designed to melt minds and they do just that.

Revolver (1966)

What brililant songs. And what an amazing variety in music in such a compact album. There’s more variety in this 35 minute album than in most band’s whole careers. And it’s all done so incredibly well. And then there’s “Tomorrow Never Knows” which could very well be the most far out song The Beatles ever recorded.

Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967)

This is a trip. Sure the “concept” isn’t really all that tight, but I think that’s why it works so well. It’s like you are in a carnival going around hearing these different incarnations of the same band. Again a wild selection of different styles of music but unlike Revolver, each of the songs somehow sounds connected to each other as well. It’s an amazing trick to make “Within You Without You” & “When I’m 64” make sense together on the same album.

This is an album that has become so legendary that sometimes I think people don’t properly appreciate how great it is. It is not overrated. It really is that good. If you think otherwise, you may have not got out of that stage where you want to be different just for it’s own sake.

The White Album(1968)

I talk a lot about variety in this article because that’s one of the things that I love most about The Beatles music and it’s one of the things that I think makes listening to their albums so trippy. Well this is the peak of that variety. There’s 30 tracks here and a vast majority of them are completely different than the other 29 songs on the album. In many ways this is the ultimate Beatles trip and I think it’s their best album ever (psychedelic or not.)

And then there’s “Revolution #9.” It’s hard to get much more psychedelic than that. If you really listen to this track closely on headphones you are likely to get yourself quite a scare and I think that makes the song quite a successful piece of sound art.

4 Important Tips On How To Promote Your Music

This past year I've been focusing a lot of time on how to sell my music online. I truly believe that internet has changed the game for musicians and I want to be one of those musicians that knows how to use the internet to help promote my music. I've been reading articles, watching videos, taking notes and buying different programs to try out. Here are just some points that I've learned along the way. Hopefully these tips will help you with your album promotion, those who want to promote a band, or for those who just want to get your songs heard.

1. Focus on Digital

Ever since Napster started back in the mid-90's people have fallen in love with digital and have never looked back. Physical CDs, while still good to sell at shows, are slowly becoming the least cost efficient way to sell your music. Think about it. You have to send the artwork out, get it printed, get it shipped (which is usually way more than what you expect), and then lug them around at shows trying to get people to buy them. Selling CDs is a traditional way of getting some money from live shows, but to be a successful independent musician you have to move with the trends. Everything is going digital nowdays.

Think about it. You can go on YouTube and find somebody's video from Japan. They might have a link in their description where you can download the song for $ 1. In an instant you can have downloaded a song from across the world. It's really amazing. People want it now and they want it fast. People are getting used to buying online now as well. I remember people were kind of touchy about buying online and how safe they would feel about it. Now everyone is getting into the action of buying online.

2. Use Social Media

If you have not guessed it yet, the way music is being promoted is completely different a few years ago. The boom of social media changed everything. It first started with sites like livejournal and then MySpace came into existence. You remember MySpace, right? The mass amount of spam and also the profiles that were so super busy it took 3 minutes to load?

Now the world has found a new handful of social media sites to move into … Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Digg, etc … The options out there are endless. The best part of social media is that it's all free and if you have a good following, your post about your latest single can get shared around the world with a few clicks of a mouse.

How to Use Social Media

However, social media is more than just starting a profile and starting to send out messages and tweets and shoving your music in everyone's face. You have to know how to use social media so that you do not become a pushy salesperson. You've seen those people on a social media site. Sending out a post every hour …

  • "Buy my CD"
  • "I've got a show this weekend"
  • "Like my Facebook page"

But those people that send out those postings never asked themselves the simple question … why should they?

Really think about that for a second …

Why should someone who does not know you from Tom wants to share your information or support your music? You're just going to be considered another spammer because you have a bunch of followers who do not know who you. You failed to establish a relationship with your social media fans. I'm not saying that you should not let people know about what's going on with your music, but you also need to communicate with other people too and have a conversation with people online before selling your music to them.

So how do they get to know more about you?

That's the true power of social media that some musicians do not understand. Social media gives you a chance to really say who you are, what you believe, what kind of music you perform, why you love music, why you do anything at all. It's pretty easy to let people know who you are. Just join a conversation or reply to a tweet. Or share another musicians music. Start to collaborate with people online. The options are endless.

3. Collect Emails

A lot of people think that collecting emails is an outdated practice. People think that it does not make much sense nowdays because people are on Facebook and Twitter so much that they just think it's best to market on those sites. That is true, but there is an even larger truth.

Social media is a fad. They come and go.

What happened to all your contacts when everyone left MySpace? Did you have to try and reconnect with many of them or did you just lose them altogether? Think about how easy it would have been to email all your fans and say "I have a new Facebook page, check it out". How many times do people change their email addresses? Another thing is that people still check their email everyday. Your email list is one of the most valuable marketing tools you have.

4. Get Your Own Domain

What is a domain you ask? It's your own real estate in the world of web pages out there. Whenever you see a .com, .net, .biz, or .gov … those are all domains. This means you should have a website that you can direct people to at all times.

Why not use a Facebook page as a website? A lot of people have asked me that and I think that if you do that you're OK, but you also might face some issues in the future.

  • What if something happens to FB?
  • What if their server goes down?
  • What if they do not like what you said in a post and decide to turn your account off?

When you own your own domain, you have complete control of your own site. It does not matter if FB goes away. You still have your own server with your own domain. Plus it looks cleaner.

How My YouTube Account Got Canceled

I'll give you a little story of mine and why I believe so much in the whole "get your own domain" and "get your fans emails". I had my YouTube account for about 5 years now. In the past year, I recently started using YouTube more to make videos and share them with people. I would go and message people that I thought would like my music. While some people did not like the message I had 1000's of people support me and share my music. Some even signed up to my email list. I absolutely love YouTube and it is one of my favorite social platforms.

The sad part about it is that YouTube shut down my account last month. I had to start all over again. Why did they shut me down? Because enough people said I was spamming them for them to shut my account down. They did not give me a warning. They just shut it down. It was my fault for not backing up my videos, but I lost most of my videos. I had to re-upload all my videos which means I had to put the description in again, put the keywords in and do all the annotations over again. It took me a whole weekend of burying myself in my apartment to get it done.

The worst part of it all? I lost 95% of all my contacts. People from all over the world that really liked my music and would comment on my channel are now gone and I might never get them back.

Master How To Market Your Music Online

I hope that you found this article helpful. As musicians we have to move with the trends. The internet and digital age has changed everything for every business and music is no different. As musicians we should be leading the charge on how to get creative using the internet. After all, most of us do not have big budgets behind us so we have to carry most of the load ourselves.

Seven-Day Cabbage Soup Diet – The Sacred Heart Hospital’s Diet

The Seven-day Cabbage Soup Diet is proven to be one of the best, safest, and quickest ways to lose weight. It is very simple and easy to follow. You will be taking this diet for one week at a time. This is the best regimen for beginners. Dieters like this program because it can be taken anytime, whether morning or evening.

The benefits of the Seven-day Cabbage Soup Diet Plan are the following:

o It is low-caloric. The tendency is that you will not be overeating, thus you lose weight.

o It acts as good filler, thus you will not be feeling any hunger pang or starvation.

o There are very minimal side effects to this regimen.

o Losing weight is very fast.

Here are the ingredients that you will need in order to prepare the meal:

o 6 large onions

o 1-2 cans of diced tomatoes

o 2 green peppers

o 1 cabbage head

o 1-2 cubes of bouillon

o a bunch of celery

o a package of Lipton onion soup mix

On the first day, you may eat all the fruits that you wish except for bananas. You can also take in unsweetened tea, cranberry juice, and water. On the second day, you may eat all kinds of cooked or raw vegetables except dry beans, corn, and peas. On the third day, you may have all the soup you want as well as fruits and vegetables. On the fourth day, you must eat 8 bananas and drink plenty of water. On the fifth day, you may have 10-20 oz. of beef. On the sixth day, you may eat vegetables and meat. On the seventh, you may have vegetables, brown rice, and fruit juices.

Hack 'n Slash?

Or perhaps more to the point, stress relief. Stop and ask yourself these questions:

1. Have you ever purchased one of those cheesy stress relief toys from a local Spencers, or other novelty shop? You know the ones. They're often shaped like a human and are squishy, ​​or painted with a target, or make annoying repetitive sounds designed to make you want to scream at them. You are mean to heap upon them as much abuse as you can dish out, and they'll keep coming back for more.

2. Have you ever found yourself playing a violent game like Unreal Tournament, or any "street fighter" type game, and realized that beating your opponent (s) senseless makes you feel a bit bit less like choking someone for real?

3. Have you ever looked up the omnipotent, immortal cheat codes for your favorite RPG video game, and used them to cast the most devastating "town killer" type spells through the entire game, for no reason other than the enjoyment of watching those little Buggers die?

Now, ask yourself: Have you ever logged in to a MU * you knew offered nothing more than run-of-the-mill, generally stock hack n 'slash, and found yourself spending hours running around typing "KILL (insert generic monster name Here) ", and actually enjoying it?

There's a certain flavor of fun to be had in smashing NPCs to pieces. Heck, there's even a nice adrenaline rush in besting another player (here, the few & far between but wildly PK-only games). But best of all, there can be a wonderful release of stress in conquering virtual foes. It's the same underwriting motivation and relief that drive people to kick-boxing for stress management, or to punching their pillows, or to buying those novelty stress toys and riddling each other with bullets in UT.

Do not believe me? Give it a try. Keep an open mind. Train your character a bit, get some good weapons, and go hunting. See if you do not feel the stress melt away with each level you gain!

Who Buys Harley Davidsons?

A lot of people carry the belief that those who have Harley Davidson motorcycles are hardcore, tattoo-laden, testosterone-filled males who guzzle hard liquor and wind up big bar fights. Even though this profile works well in the movies, a vast majority of Harley riders are easygoing, friendly people who give back to society.

Harley Davidson has worked very hard to develop a community of companionship amongstst people who own a Harley. The wild successful Harley-Owners-Group (HOG) has over 1 million members around the globe. With local divisions around the globe, members unite to share their obsession for the Harley Davidson way of life.

Harley Davidson riders include men and women who range in age from 18 to eighty eight. Some harley riders have been riding Harley Davidson motorcycles for over 50 years. Lots of the servicemen who bought in World War Two became avid fans of the motorbike, as they were regularly used for transportation in wartime. A certain number of these soldiers still still ride.

The female population of Harley Davidson owners has significantly risen over the past two decades. Maybe the most well-known female Harley motorcyclists are Avis and Effie Hotchkiss. In 1915, this mother-daughter duo traveled from New York to California on a three speed V-Twin with a sidecar.

A different female leader was Linda Dugeau, co-founder of the Motor Maids, Inc. Linda began riding a Harley Davidson motorbike in 1932. She rode around the USA and stories about her travels were printed in Motorcyclist magazine. In 1938, Dugeau began establishing a network of female motorcyclists, which typically became The Motor Maids. The organization was chartered with the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) in 1941, making it the oldest bike organization for women in North America.

Girls of all ages and backgrounds are showing an interest in motorcycles and the way of life they offer. Not only are more girls riding street bikes, they are also participating in motorbike racing. Female celebrities, such as pop musician, Pink and model, Niki Taylor, are entering the driver's seat of Harleys and suggesting other girls to ride.

Motorcycle riding is also turning into a popular family activity. Safety equipment is available to protect children while riding and include tether straps, helmets, jackets, chaps, and gloves. Touring bikes and cruisers simplify the task of taking the kids on a weekend camping or road trip. Loads of members of the military are passionate Harley owners. They enjoy the feeling they have when they hit the road and hook up with fellow Harley devotees through sponsored events or charity rides. Harley-Davidson supports various rides for US troops and Veterans' charities.

A normal trait of individuals who own Harley Davidson motorbikes is that of a giving disposition. Harley owners often embark on charity rides to assist charitable organizations or to provide for the needs of someone in their indigenous community. Harley riders have raised large amounts of money in their fundraising efforts and have supported charities dedicated to cancer research, Alzheimer's research, Autism and a lot of other addictive causes.

There is a wonderful amount of solidarity and friendship amongst Harley riders. They are a group of zealous people who enjoy the excitement of adventure. One thing is for sure … there is no other activity that unites such a diverse group of people from all walks of life and ages.

Trampolines and Outdoor Toys

When you think of toys for children, people generally think of a games console, remote control cars or maybe dolls. Due to the bad weather in the UK, this is not surprising but there is always a great demand for outdoor toys to which some may find surprising but when you look what is on offer for your children, you may realise they are missing a treat.

During the summer months, the most popular outdoor toy hands down has got to be the trampoline, due to its exhilarating feeling that it gives when you shoot up in the air, being able to jump so much higher with other people on a large trampoline. What is good about a trampoline for children is that it gives them a great amount of exercise without them realising which in this day and age, is a very positive point. So many children have been raised without playing outdoors enough, but are addicted to games consoles, television and mp3 players and very rarely venture outdoors.

Outdoor activities give children a large amount of life skills such as how it feels to fall over and how to cope with it, nasty but something many children do not experience so later in life have not developed in other areas to such as social interaction with other children and adults. There are other types of outdoor toys which can help with this, which let children gain confidence, strength and overall health due to the aerobic side to having fun with them.

After trampolines, the next popular outdoor toy has got to be the climbing frame. In many parks, you find metal climbing frames which are two or three meters in height, with some having plastic tunnels on the ground to add an extra thrill. There are good, but even more popular are wooden climbing frames which can be huge and have a old fashioned look which when purchased for your back garden, lets it blend into the surroundings very well and does not give an intrusive feel.

With these frames, you usually get some sort of lookout tower, or two on the larger climbing frames which a clatter bridge in between. To get down to the ground are usually a pair or steps or even more fun, a slide which all kids love. Usually you will get add-ons such as swings, climbing ropes or climbing walls which give children a great workout but so much fun at the same time.

Similar to these are wooden playhouses which can be very orientated towards girls, but there are models available such as a cowboy hideout or climbing tower. These have a large amount of detail and some have an upstairs but do not give as much physical fun but to get fresh air is much better than sitting in front of that computer game.

Lastly there are go karts which we have all had a go in at one point in our lives, with some models having strong breaks, a large comfortable seat so much more luxurious than bog standards karts you would find a few years ago. So whichever activity you look for, from Jumpking trampolines to action tramps climbing frames, giving children the opportunity to give life experience and aerobic activity has only got to be a good thing.

Golf Driving

A product with numerous golf driving tips is about to be disclosed to you. In this article, we will discuss how to eliminate strokes from your scorecard, how to win in long drive tournaments and much more.

Introducing – Simple Golf Swing

Almost, this book has taught very valuable lessons to over 50,000 golfers who had problems and inconsistencies in playing. Written by David Nevogt, this book appears to be dominating the top 5 most popular golf related e-books in Clickbank, popular teaching priceless golfing techniques to frustrated golfers.

In this book, David Nevogt shares how he was able to observe golf players over the years while working as a sports writer. He says he was able to discover the techniques of great golfers and he aims to share these techniques to the whole world through this book.

Simple Golf Swing teachers golfers the proper stance, gripping and timing to enhance golf driving skills. This book can also teach how to aim accurately, hit the ball with precision and get rid of those awful slices.

Bonus package are also included on top of the Simple Golf Swing e-book.

Bonus 1 – The Simple Chip

This will teach you how to knock strokes off your scorecard fast.

Bonus 2 – Mike Pedersen's Fit to A Tee

This explain how your body can affect your swing and how to change it.

Bonus 3 – Training Aids You Can Make at Home

This will demonstrate how to make golf training aids out of clothes hangers, tennis racks and other things that can be found in your home.

Bonus 4 – Putting Lessons

Valuable Putting tips compiled by popular golf instructors.

Bonus 5 – How to Get Out of the Sand and Close to the Cup

Learn and swing your way out of the hazards on the way to victory.

Bonus 6 – Lifetime Upgrades

Free access to new materials by Nevogt.

Bonus 7 – Mental Pre-Shot Routine

Simple mental trainings and preparations that can be done in 5 seconds.

Bonus 8 – Mike Austin's Secrets

How Austin launched that ball 515 yards 35 years ago.

Dent Repair – The Secrets

Does your new car have a dent in the door? Has hailed damaged the Roof or Boot? If so, dent repair is probably your best option. In the past few years, paintless dent repair has offered an alternative to the traditional dent fix. Paintless dent repair does not damage the paint on your vehicle and it is much cheaper than the usual methods of dent removal.

The secret behind dent repair is that there is not "beating out" of the dents, nor removing parts of your car. This is one of the reasons it's much cheaper than some of the older methods for dent repair. A normal dent repair will cost only a fraction of a traditional repair that is completed within a repair shop.

Paintless dent repair is a very skilled procedure. In order to achieve the best results, the process requires experience, patience, and the right tools. Since there is no painting involved, the job is completed much faster and can be done as a mobile business. This means the dent repair professional can come to the customer.

The process requires the repair specialist to gradually push the metal back to where it's supposed to be. This is done a small section at a time and depending upon the size of the dent, may require a few hours to complete. There are several tools that are needed to complete the job properly.

The tools are long, flat, and very rigid in order to allow the correct amount of pressure to be applied, without the tool bending. These tools are slid into the gap found behind the panel. Pressure is applied to the dent from behind, but it's done slowly to move the metal back into its original shape, a little bit at a time. If done correctly, there should be no damage to the paint on the other side of the panel.

Many companies are providing mobile services for dent repair. The secret to a great dent removal job is to provide the specialist with enough room to work. This will help the repair specialist to provide the amount of pressure needed to correctly push the metal back into place.

You'll now find many paintless dent repair tools are sold to the public. However, without the proper training, you can easily cause a ripple in the metal or the paint to crack or chip. This will require a much more expensive repair bill and even a repair shop may not be able to completely remove the dent. It's best to leave it to the professionals.

Paintless dent removal is recommended as an alternative to the more conventional methods. However, you need to be certain you have a trained, qualified professional to achieve the best results. There are many companies that do not provide enough training to their employees and the results can be rather costly.

For those people that have two or three dents, it's often much easier on the wallet to have them all fixed at once. Understand that not all dents may be removed by paintless dent repair. The location of the dent is the determining factor, as well as if there is a crease in the metal. Paintless dent removal can work on some creases, but it depends on how deep it is, as well as how long it is. Consult with a professional dent removal specialist to find out how they can help you.

Cyber Crimes And Solutions

We are currently living in Cyber age, where Internet and computers have major impacts on our way of living, social life and the way we conduct businesses.

The usage of information technology has posed great security challenges and ethical questions in front of us. Just as every thing has positives and negatives, usage of information technology is beneficial as well as insecure.

With the growth of the internet, network security has become a major concern. Cyber crimes have emerged rapidly in the last few years and have major consequences. Cyber criminals are doing every thing from stealing money, hacking into others computer, stealing intellectual property, spreading viruses and worms to damage computers connected on the internet and committing frauds.

Stoppage of cyber crimes is a major concern today.

Cyber criminal make use of the vulnerabilities in computer soft wares and networks to their advantage.


Hacking or Cracking is a major cyber crime committed today. Hacker makes use of the weaknesses and loop holes in operating systems to destroy data and steal important information from victim’s computer. Cracking is normally done through the use of a backdoor program installed on your machine. A lot of crackers also try to gain access to resources through the use of password cracking softwares. Hackers can also monitor what u do on your computer and can also import files on your computer. A hacker could install several programs on to your system without your knowledge. Such programs could also be used to steal personal information such as passwords and credit card information. Important data of a company can also be hacked to get the secret information of the future plans of the company.


Cyber-Theft is the use of computers and communication systems to steal information in electronic format. Hackers crack into the systems of banks and transfer money into their own bank accounts. This is a major concern, as larger amounts of money can be stolen and illegally transferred.

Many newsletters on the internet provide the investors with free advice recommending stocks where they should invest. Sometimes these recommendations are totally bogus and cause loss to the investors. Credit card fraud is also very common.

Most of the companies and banks don’t reveal that they have been the victims of cyber -theft because of the fear of losing customers and share holders. Cyber-theft is the most common and the most reported of all cyber-crimes. Cyber-theft is a popular cyber-crime because it can quickly bring experienced cyber-criminal large cash resulting from very little effort. Furthermore, there is little chance a professional cyber-criminal will be apprehended by law enforcement.

Viruses and worms:

Viruses and worms is a very major threat to normal users and companies. Viruses are computer programs that are designed to damage computers. It is named virus because it spreads from one computer to another like a biological virus. A virus must be attached to some other program or documents through which it enters the computer. A worm usually exploits loop holes in soft wares or the operating system. Trojan horse is dicey. It appears to do one thing but does something else. The system may accept it as one thing. Upon execution, it may release a virus, worm or logic bomb. A logic bomb is an attack triggered by an event, like computer clock reaching a certain date. Chernobyl and Melissa viruses are the recent examples.

Experts estimate that the Mydoom worm infected approximately a quarter-million computers in a single day in January 2004. Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus was so powerful that it forced Microsoft and a number of other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained.


An important question arises that how can these crimes be prevented. A number of techniques and solutions have been presented but the problems still exists and are increasing day by day.

Antivirus And Anti spyware Software:

Аntivirus software consists of computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software. Anti spy wares are used to restrict backdoor program, trojans and other spy wares to be installed on the computer.


A firewall protects a computer network from unauthorized access. Network firewalls may be hardware devices, software programs, or a combination of the two. A network firewall typically guards an internal computer network against malicious access from outside the network.


Cryptography is the science of encrypting and decrypting information. Encryption is like sending a postal mail to another party with a lock code on the envelope which is known only to the sender and the recipient. A number of cryptographic methods have been developed and some of them are still not cracked.

Cyber Ethics and Laws:

Cyber ethics and cyber laws are also being formulated to stop cyber crimes. It is a responsibility of every individual to follow cyber ethics and cyber laws so that the increasing cyber crimes shall reduce. Security softwares like anti viruses and anti spy wares should be installed on all computers, in order to remain secure from cyber crimes. Internet Service Providers should also provide high level of security at their servers in order to keep their clients secure from all types of viruses and mallicious programs.

Written by:

Shaikh Mohsin Ayaz

Department of Computer Science, University of Karachi